At the Library of Celsus in Ephesus, the four statues on the main facade personified WISDOM (SOPHIA), KNOWLEDGE (EPISTEME), INTELLIGENCE (ENNOIA) and VIRTUE (ARETE). As you can read from some of the inscriptions, the 3 statues shown in the photos above that Anne made, they are, top to bottom, Knowledge (Episteme), Intelligence (Ennoia), and Wisdom (Sophia).
It might be worthwhile to talk about each of the values personified by these four statues...
Wisdom - Sound judgement is another way to think about wisdom. The ability to discern what is true, right, or lasting; insight; uncommon good sense; these are qualities that we would characterize as wisdom. A wise person may not necessarily know everything there is to know about a subject, but that wise person's good judgement holds that person and all who rely upon him or her, in good stead. King Solomon did not ask God for knowledge, but rather for wisdom. His most famous moment in the wisdom department is known as the Judgment of Solomon, in which he settled a dispute between two women, both of whom claimed the same baby as their own. You know people whose wisdom can be counted on to cut through a lot of rhetoric, and get to the meat of the matter. When you do have wise folks to follow, you know that they are trustworthy and true no matter what. "Sophia" was celebrated as one of the attributes of the "Logos" or the "Word", the second person of the Holy Trinity. That is, Jesus Christ. Jesus is the Wisdom of God; no wonder the disciples followed Him and millions have and are doing the same.
Knowledge - We used to have a one volume "Book of Knowledge" around our house when I was a kid. You could find out fact about anything you might think of from plants and animals and planets to how to draw, to a dictionary, all bound together. Knowledge (then) was gathered and accumulated in places like libraries just as it was in Celsus' day and as it is down to this day. Acquaintance with facts, truths, or principles, from study or investigation; general erudition; is what we mean by knowledge.
Of course, the change that has come in the digital age means that more and more knowledge is available on your computer screen, as you search and find what you are looking for. I remember not so long ago. when I would call the Ready Reference desk at the Carnegie Library to find out things that I can now learn about by an Internet search. Knowledge may be considered to be "ever increasing" and yet, I suspect there are some thing the ancients knew that got lost along the way down the centuries, and are still waiting to be known once more. We believe that only one source can claim perfect and complete wisdom, and that is God who is described as being "omniscient", that is, having total knowledge; knowing everything.
Intelligence - The ability to receive, know, think about and utilize knowledge. Perhaps the most simple way of saying it is "the ability to learn and use what you learn". Sometimes our ability to learn is in "our genes". IQ is measured and from what I have been able to discover, this is more a mater of nature that nurture--you are born with a certain capacity to learn. It can be enhanced by a desire to learn, by teachers who prompt an eagerness or excitement about learning. Keep in mind that a person can have tremendous knowledge and yet not display much in the way of intelligence, if she or he will not incorporate and apply it. Abstract thought, understanding, self-awareness, and communication are part of that application. We have all met intelligent people who can incorporate and apply knowledge; some who apply it in ways that are helpful and otters that apply it in ways that are hurtful.
Virtue - Living in accord with what is right is what is meant by virtue. Moral excellence, righteousness and goodness serve as the evidence of a virtuous life. by contrast those whose lives are marred by moral laxity, corruption, dishonesty, immorality, sinfulness, lack of fair play, and wickedness would be the antithesis of a person of virtue. Much of the Bible attempts to guide people to value and live virtuous lives. There really is no way of getting around the writings of Paul on this matter, nor on the words of Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount and other red letter places in the Gospels. In modern Christianity, we often hear about "life application" in regard to the Scriptures. Virtue is what is meant but such a phrase.
The statues at Ephesus date to the 130s A.D. and were not placed in those niches by a Christian. Nonetheless, we can learn much from them. If we are willing.
"If I have the gift of prophecy and can fathom all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have a faith that can move mountains, but do not have love, I am nothing."
- I Corinthians 13:2